Geophysiscal survey projects

Detection of sinkoles and hollow spaces under a trajectory

On behalf of TNO Geological Survey of the Netherlands, T&A conducted a GPR investigation along a route in South Limburg. The aim of the survey was to detect sinkholes and hollow spaces under a 1 km trajectory. The cavities are created by local solution of the limestone (marl) in dolines (solution depressions).

Determining the location of the groutanker locations

T&A has mapped the location of 22 grout anchor locations in the Buiksloterkanaal in Amsterdam for a client. 38 pile foundation pairs (76 piles in total) will be placed at the location of these grout anchor locations.

Mapping the transition between sewage sludge and water bottom

A lagoon in the Manchester area has been filled with sewage sludge from a nearby water treatment plant for the past 50 years. To enable a good planning of the dredging and soil improvement activities, information about the exact depth of the lagoon was needed. T&A was commissioned to map the transition between the sewage sludge and the actual water bottom, consisting of glacial clay.

T&A conducted a GPR survey along a trajectory in South Limburg for TNO Geological Survey of the Netherlands. The research goal was to detect sink holes and cavities under the 1 km trajectory. The cavities are created by local solution of the limestone (marl) in dolines (solution depressions).

Dolines

The subsurface of the research area consists of a loess cover with clay and flints below. Under the clay layer there is a limestone layer, in which the dolines are found. These dolines gave a maximum diameter of a few tens of meters, but often also a lot smaller. The dolines were created by the dissolving the underlying limestone, which caused the overlying layers to collapse.

GPR survey

During the GPR measurements T&A's data analyst marked details in the radar profiles (in particular repairs to and cracks in the surface or the road and the lowest point of dolines) and provided them with an explanation. The interpretation of the GPR data collected by T&A was then carried out by TNO geologists.


T&A has mapped 22 grout anchor locations in the Buiksloterkanaal in Amsterdam for a client. At the location of these grout anchor locations, 38 pile foundation pairs (76 piles in total) will be placed .

Magnetometer CPT

Based on our knowledge and experience we determine which geophysical techniques can best be used to achieve the research objective. In this investigation we have opted for the use of magnetometer CPT. With the help of a magnetometer integrated in a CPT, it is possible to map the influence of the earth's magnetic field caused by a grout anchor. The influence zone depends on the diameter, length and type of material of the anchor.

Data analysis

Based on the measurement data, the horizontal and vertical position of the grout anchors could be determined. This resulted in the recommendation to take the established position of the existing grout anchors into account during the design phase of the pile foundation.


A lagoon in the Manchester area has been filled with sewage sludge from a nearby water treatment plant for the past 50 years. To enable a good planning of the dredging and soil improvement activities, information about the exact depth of the lagoon was needed. T&A was commissioned to map the transition between the sewage sludge and the actual water bottom, consisting of glacial clay.

ERT measurements

The technology that T&A has used to determine the transition between the different soil layers is called ERT. With ERT it is possible to map the electrical resistance of different soil layers. The estimated survey depth was 13 meters below the water surface. The survey was conducted from a vessel with a special marine measurement system. Because the water depth of the lagoon was between 0 and 0.3 meters, the boat sometimes had to be pulled over the sludge.

Results

The geophysical measurements showed that the sewage sludge had a very good electrical permeability, probably because it was discharged poorly into the lagoon. The clay had a much lower electrical permeability, making it possible to map the depth of the sewage sludge properly.



The aim of this research was to map a salt dome to a depth of several kilometers using the magnetotelluric measuremen technique. The salt dome is filled with salt water and the top of the salt dome is expected to be located at a depth of approximately 500 meters.

Techniques

Seismic research is usually used to map deeper geology such as salt domes. However, in most cases the depth range and accuracy of magnetotelluric measurements is much more favorable. This technique can replace, but as a rule is used in combination with seismic surveys.

Results

The salt dome has been mapped to a depth of almost two kilometers. The blue colors represent a soil composition with high electrical resistance. The red and yellow colors indicate soil material with a low resistance (and therefore high conductivity). The contour in the figure corresponds to the true position of the salt dome.



Client
Project Goal
Overhoeks Development Management BV
Locating grout anchor locations, Buiksloterkanaal, Amsterdam
TNO Geological Service
Detection of sinkholes and cavities under a road
Geonius
Locating underground obstacles, Geleen
BK Ingenieurs
Geofysical survey of remnants of concrete industry, Son en Breugel
Municipality of Haarlem
Dermining the location of anchors and anchor bulkheads in quay wall
BAM infra
Confirming absence of horizontal directional drillings (HHD)
Heijmans
Detecting leakage from drainage lock Bovenland
Regionale Uitvoeringsdienst Drenthe
Determining the continuity of a clay layer, Hoogeveen
Royal Smals
3D delineation of sludge transition, Oldham, UK
Projectbureau BLEIZO
Determining the position of cables and pipes
DARK
Determining sheet pile location, Amsterdam Rijnkanaal
Royal Haskoning DHV
Geophysical survey of a landfill, Tiel
Royal Haskoning DHV
Asfalt survey of a dike between Waardenburg and Gorinchem
Pinnacle Consulting Engineers
Radar survey Agriport
Dekker BV
Cables and pipes survey in a canal, Amsterdam
Antea Group
Geophysical suvey  Zevenbergen castle garden
BAM Wegen
Detection of hollow spaces