Combined archaeological and UXO research projects

Combined survey Nijmegen: UXO, archaeology and contamination

T&A Survey carried out a combined UXO, archaeological and environmental survey in Nijmegen for the demolition of an old and the construction of a new residential area. Remains from the Second World War and Roman times, but also soil contamination, were expected in the area. T&A Survey is the only agency in the Netherlands that has all the knowledge and qualifications for such complicated, combined soil investigations.


Combined archaeological and UXO research at Arnhem Meinerswijk

The floodplains at Meinerswijk (Arnhem) have been deepened and the area redesigned. Meinerswijk is home to the historic John Frost Bridge, where a lot of battles took place during the Second World War (WWII). The chance of finding explosives was therefore high. In addition, the remains of a Roman castellum and medieval settlement are located in the vicinity of the research area. To prevent dangerous situations during work or the loss of historical artefacts, T&A Survey has conducted an extensive combined UXO and archaeological survey.



T&A Survey carried out a combined UXO, archaeological and environmental survey in Nijmegen for the demolition of an old and the construction of a new residential area. Remains from the Second World War and Roman times, but also soil contamination, were expected in the area. T&A Survey is the only agency in the Netherlands that has all the knowledge and qualifications for such complicated, combined soil investigations.

Detection
In and around Nijmegen there many battles were fought during WWII. Preliminary research has shown that the area where, just after the war, the houses were built is suspect of explosives. Old aerial photos show that there have been (German) defense works. Shortly after the war, debris from the city was dumped in the area. The soil was excavated layer by layer based on detection results. We encountered many war-related objects: a British helmet, jerry cans, an ammunition box, igniters and grenade shells. Also, a large number of tombstones with names and dates were found.

Roman remains
Noviomagus (Nijmegen) was the first Roman settlement in the Netherlands. Traces of Roman constructions and parts of a Roman burial field were expected to be found within the plan area. In the underlying sand layer the presence of Roman remains such as urns and other objects had to be taken into account. The work was therefore archaeologically supervised.

Soil contamination
The area has been partly used as a dump site for debris from the city of Nijmegen, contaminating the underlying soil layers. Therefore, excavation work had to be carried out under remediation conditions.

Combination of techniques
The added value for combined projects like this one is that at T&A geophysical specialists, environmental experts, UXO experts, historians and archaeologists work closely together under one roof. As a result, there is an optimum transfer of knowledge between the various fields of knowledge resulting in a higher quality end result, while making the implementation more efficient.


The floodplains at Meinerswijk (Arnhem) have been deepened and the area redesigned. Meinerswijk is home to the historic John Frost Bridge, where a lot of battles took place during the Second World War (WWII). The chance of finding explosives was therefore high. In addition, the remains of a Roman castellum and medieval settlement are located in the vicinity of the research area. To prevent dangerous situations during work or the loss of historical artefacts, T&A Survey has conducted an extensive combined UXO and archaeological survey.

Investigation
T&A has investigated the area with a multi-probe gradiometer connected to GPS and  with GPR. These techniques provide data about the location, depth and dimensions of the objects and structures in the subsurface. Among the findings were many grenades, four aircraft bombs and remains of trenches from WWII with personal belongings of French, English and German soldiers. In addition, filled up ditches and remnants of local clay extraction for the manufacturing of bricks have been found.

Archaeological research has also provided a great deal of additional knowledge about the combat activities during the Battle of Arnhem. The archaeological supervision of UXO research provides a quick and efficient insight into the soil structure, degree of disturbance and the chances of finding archeology in a large research area. Subsequent  research can therefore be conducted in a more targeted manner.

Results
Thanks to the preparatory work, the excavation activities could be performed safely for both the contractor and the environment. No historical heritage has been lost thanks to the archaeological research.

Klokgroep
Combined UXO, environmental and archaeological survey Nijmegen
BAM Infra
Archaeological supervision railway underpass Dieren
Markus BV/De Nijs
Archaeological excavation foundations of a mill, Wormerveer
GMB - Van Oord
Combined UXO and archaeological survey Meinerswijk Arnhem
Gemeente Bronckhorst
Archaeological assistance of the salvaging of an aircraft from WWII
Hoogheemraadschap van Rijnland Trial trench evaluation for excavations of Sluiseiland Halfweg
Provincie Utrecht Trial trench evaluation floodplains Rhenen
Gemeente Zundert Trial trench evaluation trajectory ringroad Zutphen
Witteveen + Bos Combined UXO and archaeological suvey Afsluitdijk
Water Authority Rijnland
Desk study and Archaeological supervision Inlaagpolder, Spaarndam
Municipality of Landgraaf
Combined UXO and archaeological survey for construction of a water buffer
Dura Vermeer
Archaelogical desk research for location of several bridges in Noord-Holland province
Eneco
Archaelogical desk research for location of a wind farm, Noordersluiseiland, IJmuiden
Uithoflijn Utrecht
Prospective probing and archaeological supervision of tram track construction
Markus
Prospective probing and archaeological supervision construction eco passage De Schie
Liandon
Prospective probing island of Texel for construction of gas pipeline