TISA 3D applications
- Wireline logging: The tool performs wireline logging deeper into the surrounding formation. From the radar response the electric properties of the reservoir rock can be measured, providing a better estimation of the salinity and saturation of the water and the porosity and hydrocarbon content of the formation. As a wireline logging tool, TISA 3D can be applied in several geological situations. Read more >>
- Geosteering/MWD: TISA 3D is the only tool in the EM family with geosteering capacities. TISA 3D will guide drilling through thin pay zones at a fixed distance to the bounds of the reservoir or to adjacent boreholes as in a SAGD (Steam Activated Gravity Drainage) configuration. Read more >>
- Monitoring: In production phases of oil and gas fields, water and steam drives are used to improve production rates. TISA 3D is well suited to monitor the movement of the steam/waterfront in 3D. Due to superior repeatability of radar measurements, 4D/time-lapse monitoring of the production environment is done.
- 3D geometry of production environment is imaged
- 4D monitoring of production environment
The focus will primarily be on the development of a TISA 3D wireline logging tool, as this is by far the most powerful application of the technique in E&P, with the biggest market potential. After a successful market introduction of the TISA 3D wireline tool, we will proceed with the development of the TISA 3D Geosteering/MWD and Monitoring tools to expand the E&P market even further.
- TISA 3D acts as both imaging tool and wireline logging tool
- Imaging through reflections, tomography and 3D logging
Application of TISA 3D in several geological situations
The TISA 3D technology can be of use in several geological scenarios. The figure below visualizes several of these situations, in which the technology adds extra value to an oil and gas company:
- Compartmentalization: compartmentalized oil fields are very difficult to develop, which is mainly related to the distribution, inter-distance and geometry of faults. TISA 3D can help to locate faults in high detail, thereby assisting decision-makers in the development of a field.
- Identifying oil-water-contacts (OWC): the specific identification of an OWC is of special interest in the oil and gas industry. An optimal identification helps to obtain more realistic volume estimations; clarifying regional versus local OWC’s; optimizing placement of development wells and reduces the necessity of extra evaluation wells. Overall exploration risks can be reduced significantly.
- Near-Field Exploration (NFE): increasing the Possibility Of Success (POS) of prospects in adjacent blocks is a very valuable asset of the TISA 3D. Additionally drill risks are reduced by placing wells away from faults.
Examples of ‘reactive’ LWD’s are density, gamma ray, FMI (Formation Micro Imaging) and acoustic logs. TISA 3D enables proactive or predictive geosteering, seeing the reservoir bounds in advance of drilling. This is not limited to only conventional reservoirs and traps but e.g. faults and salt dome flanks are imaged just as well.
- TISA 3D looks deep into the reservoir
- Proactively keeps track of the reservoir geometry
- TISA 3D BHR can be part of MWD in the BHA (Bottom Hole Assembly) of the drill string
Application of TISA 3D in a Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) system
SAGD is a technique in which heavy oil or tar is gained from sandstones, by injecting steam into the reservoir in order to lower the viscosity of the oil and accordingly produce the oil. Usually two horizontal wells are drilled, in which the upper well injects the steam. The lower well produces the oil (see Figure below). Vertical separation between both wells is typically between 4 – 6 meters. If this separation becomes too high or too low, the efficiency of the system drops significantly. This is where TISA 3D can be of help. Once the first well has been drilled, the tool can be applied in the second well in order to keep the second well on track. This way the risks involved with vertical separation are reduced considerably and due to the increase of the system efficiency, more oil can be extracted. Keeping in mind that a SAGD-based system typically involves multiple wells, even small increases in extracted volumes per well can have major consequences (see lower corner Figure). The added value of the TISA 3D borehole radar is therefore promising.